What do gastroenterologists do? Gastroenterology is the field of medicine concerned with the function and disorders of the digestive system. Gastroenterologists are medical specialists with extensive training in diseases of the digestive tract. They are equipped to answer your questions, to perform tests in making a diagnosis and to prescribe the best course of treatment to help you feel better. People with complicated conditions often benefit from being treated by a specialist who has handled a large number of similar cases.